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Macron Invokes Article 49.3 of the French Constitution to Increase Retirement Age

In an effort to preserve the country's pension system from insolvency, French President Emmanuel Macron on Thursday invoked a special constitutional power to bypass parliament and increase the national retirement age from 62 to 64.[0] The move has been met with widespread protests and opposition from both the public and lawmakers.

Macron and his proponents argue that the reform was necessary to save the country's pension system from going bankrupt.[1] They point to France's lower retirement age, which was implemented by then-President Charles de Gaulle in the years after World War II, as a major factor behind the system's current financial state.[2]

The decision to trigger article 49.3 of the French constitution, which grants the government executive privilege to push through controversial pension reforms without a parliamentary vote, has been seen as a risky move for Macron.[3] It allows MPs to submit motions of no-confidence within 24 hours, and if a majority of MPs vote in favor of a motion, Macron's government would be forced to resign.[4]

Protests have broken out across the city of Paris in response to Macron's decision, which many see as an undemocratic move that undermines the power of the legislature.[5] Macron’s government has faced down motions of no confidence in the past but the stakes are much higher this time around, as failure to secure enough parliament votes could topple the government.[6]

Facing potential failure in the National Assembly, Macron has a last resort: to employ article 49.3 of the French constitution.[6] This mechanism allows the government to force through legislation without submitting it to a vote, a move which has been met with widespread criticism from both the public and opposition lawmakers.[6] The decision to use this article has helped underscore the difficulty Macron will have enacting any other domestic policies during his remaining time in office.

0. “What's Happening in France? Videos Show Paris Burning in Protest” Newsweek, 16 Mar. 2023,

1. “Macron's bypasses parliament to raise retirement age with executive powers” The Washington Post, 16 Mar. 2023,

2. “As U.S. Debates Social Security, Macron Increases France's Retirement Age” Newsweek, 16 Mar. 2023,

3. “Macron Government Bypasses France's National Assembly to Pass Pension Overhaul” The Wall Street Journal, 16 Mar. 2023,

4. “Macron's defiant show of force in parliament exposes a weakened president” POLITICO Europe, 16 Mar. 2023,

5. “The Debate – Macron goes for nuclear option: French government overrides parliament over pensions” FRANCE 24 English, 16 Mar. 2023,

6. “Macron on the brink: How French pensions revolt could wreck his presidency” POLITICO Europe, 16 Mar. 2023,

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